- PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
- Who currently have an untreated pelvic infection
- Have more than one sexual partner, or a sexual partner who has more than one sexual partner
According to Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, the manufacturer of Mirena, this IUD contraceptive is appropriate for women who have had at least 1 child, who are in a stable, mutually monogamous relationship, and have no risk or history of ectopic pregnancy or pelvic inflammatory disease. The reasoning behind these cautions has nothing to do with the IUD itself. Though both Mirena IUD and ParaGard IUD have been proven to be very effective at preventing pregnancy, the IUD offers no protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Because of this, healthcare professionals typically recommend IUD birth control to women who are married or involved in a serious monogamous relationship.
In the past, IUD use in younger women (without children) was incorrectly linked to conditions like PID, infertility, and other side effects related to IUD placement. Nowadays, we know that the IUD is a safe and highly effective birth control option for women of all ages, with or without children. But, there is still some concern about an increased risk of PID with IUD use in women without children.
This is because higher rates of STDs (not IUD use) puts a woman more at risk for PID. Women who have not had children tend to be younger and generally have higher rates of STDs (like chlamydia), which can lead to PID. Mirena can actually help protect against PID because it thickens cervical mucus and decreases menstrual flow. BUT, Mirena does not protect against STDs.
If you choose to have multiple sexual partners while using IUD birth control, it is extremely important that you also use condoms for STD protection. It may also be a wise idea to have both you and your partner tested for STDs prior to having sex. You also need to be 100% sure that your partner is not having sex with anybody else.