1. Male Condom
Condoms cover the man's penis during sexual intercourse and collect semen before, during, and after he ejaculates. This contraceptive device prevents sperm from entering the vagina. Condoms can be made of latex, polyurethane (plastic), natural membrane (lambskin), or polyisoprene (non latex natural rubber)). They are available dry or lubricated. This is also one of the few birth control methods that can help protect against sexually transmitted infections. If condoms are used with a spermicide (foam, cream, jelly, suppository, or film), even greater protection against pregnancy is possible.
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Female condoms are polyurethane (plastic) pouches with flexible rings at each end. It collects semen and prevents the sperm from entering the woman's body. The woman inserts the ring at the closed end of the female condom deep into her vagina (like a diaphragm). The ring at the open end should hang about an inch outside the vagina. The female condom is a reversible barrier method of birth control and can be helpful in the protection against many sexually transmitted diseases.
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Spermicide is available as foams, film, creams, suppositories, and jellies and forms a barrier against sperm. These products should be placed deep into the vagina right before intercourse where they will then melt (except for contraceptive foam, which forms bubbles). These contraceptives contain a chemical spermicide (usually nonoxynol-9) that will immobilize sperm, which prevents the sperm from fertilizing an egg. When used by itself, spermicide is not as effective as other over the counter methods and does not offer protection against STDs. When used with a condom, effectiveness is improved.
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4. The Sponge
The sponge is a soft, round barrier device that is about two inches in diameter. It is made of solid polyurethane foam, contains spermicide, and has a nylon loop attached to the bottom for removal. The sponge must first be moistened with water and then the woman inserts it into her vagina before intercourse. It covers the cervix (opening to the uterus), and it blocks sperm from entering it. The sponge also releases a spermicide that can immobilize sperm, thus, preventing the sperm from reaching an egg. Although taken off the market in 1995, the sponge is now available again for contraceptive use.
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The morning-after pill consists of one progestin-only pill approved by the FDA specifically for emergency contraception (EC). It contains the progestin levonorgestrel and should be taken within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected intercourse or birth control failure (the sooner, the better). The morning after pill is NOT the same thing as the abortion pill and will NOT harm an existing pregnancy. The morning-after pill can now be bought over-the-counter to individuals of any age.
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